The sparsely populated high desert of eastern Oregon is home to three localities producing natural copper-bearing labradorite feldspar.

Promoted as “andesine” and purportedly from mines in Congo or Tibet, this material was subsequently found to be treated, but the resulting furor hindered the public’s trust in natural copper-bearing feldspar.

Despite this setback, Oregon sunstone miners have strived to rebuild the market, and there are signs of renewed consumer interest in their one-of-kind gem.

A volcanic rock is a fine-grained type of igneous rock whose matrix usually consists of glass and tiny crystals.

Through the rapid cooling of molten lava such that no crystallization of its quartz and feldspar contents occurs, the natural glass variety called obsidian is formed.

Plutonic rocks (coarse-grained igneous rocks that solidified in the crust) are usually classified according to their mineralogical composition.

Most important minerals upon which these classification schemes are based on are quartz, feldspars, pyroxene, olivine, hornblende, and feldspathoids.

Minnesota, however, has lots of rockhounding opportunities beyond Lake Superior Agates.

Although many people are aware that Minnesota was impacted by the most recent Ice Age, non-rockhounders often are unaware of Minnesota’s volcanic past or that vast seas once covered it.

Stromboli was known as the "lighthouse of the Mediterranean"best terrestrial examples are Crater Lake, Oregon and Yellowstone and the best extraterrestrial example is Olympus Mons on Mars which is 5 times the diameter of Crater Lake and covers over 45 times the areasevere damage can result from mudflows on the sides of volcanoes--these mudflows are called lahars--lahars result when highly unstable layers of volcanic ash and debris become saturated with water from heavy precipitation and flow down slopethe periodicity and magnitude of Earth tremors caused by movement of rock materials below the surface can be used as precursors to a volcanic event --the closer the tremors in time and the greater the magnitude, the sooner the volcanic eruptionalthough there is no official citing of volcanism on the moon the rocks collected show evidence of large scale igneous and volcanic activities.